City sightseeing bus going green after cash grant boost

At the launch of York’s first electric City Sightseeing bus at York Minster, from left, Mandy Gaughan, Jim Wallace, James Alexander, Jane Lady Gibson and Marcus Jenkins

At the launch of York’s first electric City Sightseeing bus at York Minster, from left, Mandy Gaughan, Jim Wallace, James Alexander, Jane Lady Gibson and Marcus Jenkins

First published in News
Last updated
by

A YORK sightseeing bus has been given an electric makeover.

The city sightseeing bus, operated by Transdev, is one of the first double decker to be converted from diesel to pure electric with lithium ion batteries, similar to those used by mobile phones.

The council was awarded £75,433 last year to convert the 15-year old City Sightseeing bus to fully electric drive, after successfully bidding for the Department for Transport’s (DfT) Clean Bus Technology Fund.

The bus will travel all day without needing to charge.

The electric retrofitted bus will eliminate the emission of 33 tons of CO2 and more than 535kg of poisonous NOx per year and will also reduce operating costs of the vehicle by more than £20k per year.

Richard Jackson at Transdev, said “Thousands of tourists and residents travel on our popular City Sightseeing buses every year so it’s fantastic news that through this funding we’ll be able to offer an even better travelling experience, whilst at the same time helping to improve air quality in York by converting to an electric bus."

Comments (25)

Please log in to enable comment sorting

12:01pm Thu 4 Sep 14

pedalling paul says...

Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions. pedalling paul
  • Score: 12

12:25pm Thu 4 Sep 14

RingoStarr says...

pedalling paul wrote:
Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
Unless you've been eating sprouts?
[quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.[/p][/quote]Unless you've been eating sprouts? RingoStarr
  • Score: -3

12:38pm Thu 4 Sep 14

BL2 says...

pedalling paul wrote:
Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
Actually, since you breathe out CO2, that's round spherical things...
[quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.[/p][/quote]Actually, since you breathe out CO2, that's round spherical things... BL2
  • Score: 0

1:03pm Thu 4 Sep 14

GBTYZ says...

Lets hope with the savings they will convert the rest
Lets hope with the savings they will convert the rest GBTYZ
  • Score: 13

1:14pm Thu 4 Sep 14

The Grim Reaper says...

How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change.
How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change. The Grim Reaper
  • Score: 19

1:57pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Ignatius Lumpopo says...

Good. It's going green.

Perhaps it can start going a bit faster too, so it doesn't keep holding up traffic all along its route. (And I mean pedal and electrically powered traffic too: tourist buses in York cause constant rolling bottlenecks for everyone).
Good. It's going green. Perhaps it can start going a bit faster too, so it doesn't keep holding up traffic all along its route. (And I mean pedal and electrically powered traffic too: tourist buses in York cause constant rolling bottlenecks for everyone). Ignatius Lumpopo
  • Score: -23

2:13pm Thu 4 Sep 14

HeworthM says...

Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years?
If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available.
Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years? If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available. HeworthM
  • Score: 11

2:51pm Thu 4 Sep 14

smudge2 says...

pedalling paul wrote:
Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ??
[quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.[/p][/quote]At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ?? smudge2
  • Score: -15

3:09pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Ichabod76 says...

HeworthM wrote:
Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years?
If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available.
If it did cost the full £75k to convert 1 bus to full electric only saving 20k per year I can't see why any company that would have to pay for it themselves would do so.
the lithium ion batteries, similar to those used by mobile phones deteriorate over time and have been known to explode when damaged or overcharged
The battery in my phone now struggles to run a full day with the amount I use it and it's only 18 months old.
So whats the life span of bus batteries, and cost of replacement ?
[quote][p][bold]HeworthM[/bold] wrote: Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years? If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available.[/p][/quote]If it did cost the full £75k to convert 1 bus to full electric only saving 20k per year I can't see why any company that would have to pay for it themselves would do so. the lithium ion batteries, similar to those used by mobile phones deteriorate over time and have been known to explode when damaged or overcharged The battery in my phone now struggles to run a full day with the amount I use it and it's only 18 months old. So whats the life span of bus batteries, and cost of replacement ? Ichabod76
  • Score: 5

3:15pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Ichabod76 says...

The Grim Reaper wrote:
How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change.
Mining and refining Lithium produces a lot of CO2, and I believe china are the biggest producers of lithium batteries.
[quote][p][bold]The Grim Reaper[/bold] wrote: How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change.[/p][/quote]Mining and refining Lithium produces a lot of CO2, and I believe china are the biggest producers of lithium batteries. Ichabod76
  • Score: 6

3:24pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Horse Renoir says...

Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!!
Or am I missing something?
Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!! Or am I missing something? Horse Renoir
  • Score: 3

4:47pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Priapus says...

Horse Renoir wrote:
Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!!
Or am I missing something?
I'm puzzled too. 30 tonnes of CO2 comes from about 12,000 litres of diesel. (http://www.icbe.com
/carbondatabase/volu
meconverter.asp) But buses often have low mpg - say around 10 mpg or 3.5 Km per litre. This suggests they'd do about 3400 km per year which doesn't seem much.
[quote][p][bold]Horse Renoir[/bold] wrote: Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!! Or am I missing something?[/p][/quote]I'm puzzled too. 30 tonnes of CO2 comes from about 12,000 litres of diesel. (http://www.icbe.com /carbondatabase/volu meconverter.asp) But buses often have low mpg - say around 10 mpg or 3.5 Km per litre. This suggests they'd do about 3400 km per year which doesn't seem much. Priapus
  • Score: 2

4:58pm Thu 4 Sep 14

pedalling paul says...

smudge2 wrote:
pedalling paul wrote:
Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ??
Yes.......... when will they ever learn...?
[quote][p][bold]smudge2[/bold] wrote: [quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.[/p][/quote]At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ??[/p][/quote]Yes.......... when will they ever learn...? pedalling paul
  • Score: 20

5:17pm Thu 4 Sep 14

emen says...

Horse Renoir wrote:
Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!!
Or am I missing something?
I was told once that an older double-decker emits about 10 times more CO2 than a car. So, if we are talking metric tons, that's about 26,000 kms per year or around 16,000 miles.

Then you have to factor in the additional CO2 generated by charging the batteries which would add another 50% or so to to that figure so that's about 24,000 miles a year. It's all guesswork and assumptions but I suspect the council figures are too.
[quote][p][bold]Horse Renoir[/bold] wrote: Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!! Or am I missing something?[/p][/quote]I was told once that an older double-decker emits about 10 times more CO2 than a car. So, if we are talking metric tons, that's about 26,000 kms per year or around 16,000 miles. Then you have to factor in the additional CO2 generated by charging the batteries which would add another 50% or so to to that figure so that's about 24,000 miles a year. It's all guesswork and assumptions but I suspect the council figures are too. emen
  • Score: 4

5:18pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Ichabod76 says...

pedalling paul wrote:
smudge2 wrote:
pedalling paul wrote:
Love it!!!!

The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.
At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ??
Yes.......... when will they ever learn...?
Seems as if CTC are also confused as their annual report quite clearly states "Paul Hepworth has maintained a watching brief on local
media, and responded on our behalf to cycling related issues that have
arisen being a prolific correspondent in the “Letters” page and as
“Pedalling Paul” on website of the York Press."

Any comment Paul Hepworth ?
[quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: [quote][p][bold]smudge2[/bold] wrote: [quote][p][bold]pedalling paul [/bold] wrote: Love it!!!! The EU are driving all vehicle emission rates down. 128 g/Km now to 95 by 2020. But of course if you travel today in the urban commuter's fast lane rather than the fat lane ie by pedal power, you will instantly achieve zero emissions.[/p][/quote]At it again Paul winding York residents up ....when will you learn ??[/p][/quote]Yes.......... when will they ever learn...?[/p][/quote]Seems as if CTC are also confused as their annual report quite clearly states "Paul Hepworth has maintained a watching brief on local media, and responded on our behalf to cycling related issues that have arisen being a prolific correspondent in the “Letters” page and as “Pedalling Paul” on website of the York Press." Any comment Paul Hepworth ? Ichabod76
  • Score: -50

7:00pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Buzzz Light-year says...

The Grim Reaper wrote:
How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change.
The same argument as:

Until all those murderers and rapists stop what they do, I'm going to carry on mugging old ladies because it's pointless me stopping while they can do all that.

Until all those morbidly obese people lose some weight I'm going to eat pies, pies, pies till the cows come home cos it's pointless me losing weight till they do.

In other words: fail.
[quote][p][bold]The Grim Reaper[/bold] wrote: How wonderful. But until the whole world jumps on this bandwagon, it will not make a jot of difference. If the UK was totally zero on the carbon footprint, again it wouldn't make a jot of a difference. Whilst we have China and the US and India as the biggest producers of C02, nothing is going to change.[/p][/quote]The same argument as: Until all those murderers and rapists stop what they do, I'm going to carry on mugging old ladies because it's pointless me stopping while they can do all that. Until all those morbidly obese people lose some weight I'm going to eat pies, pies, pies till the cows come home cos it's pointless me losing weight till they do. In other words: fail. Buzzz Light-year
  • Score: -6

7:42pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Martin true Viking says...

What a load of old tosh. Who on earth makes these figures up. Guess work at best. And all we are doing us shifting the problem somewhere else.
What a load of old tosh. Who on earth makes these figures up. Guess work at best. And all we are doing us shifting the problem somewhere else. Martin true Viking
  • Score: 7

8:48pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Pinza-C55 says...

Am i missing something here or has the council just given £75,000 of taxpayers money to a private company in order to save money and make the company more profitable?
Can i apply for a similar handout?
Am i missing something here or has the council just given £75,000 of taxpayers money to a private company in order to save money and make the company more profitable? Can i apply for a similar handout? Pinza-C55
  • Score: 6

10:54pm Thu 4 Sep 14

Fanny Free House says...

The council was awarded £75,433 last year to convert the 15-year old City Sightseeing bus to fully electric drive.

What a pitty the council is incapable of making a case to look after vunerable residents, but hey, ho, we have a clean bus.
The council was awarded £75,433 last year to convert the 15-year old City Sightseeing bus to fully electric drive. What a pitty the council is incapable of making a case to look after vunerable residents, but hey, ho, we have a clean bus. Fanny Free House
  • Score: -53

12:10am Fri 5 Sep 14

strangebuttrue? says...

Horse Renoir wrote:
Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!!
Or am I missing something?
They actually do about 6mpg but I imagine this old relic combined with it's constant low speed (probably never go over 20mph) was probably doing about 3 or 4mpg.
The council say that busses are one of the main reasons York has missed it's pollution targets despite ramming them down our throats on a daily basis for years.
[quote][p][bold]Horse Renoir[/bold] wrote: Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!! Or am I missing something?[/p][/quote]They actually do about 6mpg but I imagine this old relic combined with it's constant low speed (probably never go over 20mph) was probably doing about 3 or 4mpg. The council say that busses are one of the main reasons York has missed it's pollution targets despite ramming them down our throats on a daily basis for years. strangebuttrue?
  • Score: -23

10:15am Fri 5 Sep 14

Ichabod76 says...

http://www.ctc.org.u
k/ctc/history/roll-h
onour-past-certifica
te-merit-winners/201
2/paul-hepworth
http://www.ctc.org.u k/ctc/history/roll-h onour-past-certifica te-merit-winners/201 2/paul-hepworth Ichabod76
  • Score: 2

12:01pm Fri 5 Sep 14

RingoStarr says...

Looking at the change of 'plus' votes from yesterday to 'minus' today I do hope they don't let Paul Hepworth anywhere near the ballot boxes next year!
Looking at the change of 'plus' votes from yesterday to 'minus' today I do hope they don't let Paul Hepworth anywhere near the ballot boxes next year! RingoStarr
  • Score: 9

5:06pm Fri 5 Sep 14

mmarshal says...

Well done to CYC Council and Transdev. What is the prospect of this being extended to remove all the other open topped tourists buses which belch out fumes wherever they go?
It would be interesting to know how the environmental impact of this move compares with any improvements resulting from the Lendal Bridge fiasco.
Well done to CYC Council and Transdev. What is the prospect of this being extended to remove all the other open topped tourists buses which belch out fumes wherever they go? It would be interesting to know how the environmental impact of this move compares with any improvements resulting from the Lendal Bridge fiasco. mmarshal
  • Score: 1

4:34am Sat 6 Sep 14

Magicman! says...

HeworthM wrote:
Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years?
If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available.
This conversion is the world's very first converted electric double decker bus... and so every corner of the bus industry will be watching it to see if it works as desired. The company behind the conversion hope to have 'conversion kits' available by early next year for other buses.

This time last year, York has no 'green' buses. Now we have the electric minibus for the university campus, 4 hybrids for the number 4 route (supposed to be 5, but the very first one from the batch has had several mechanical issues and is still over in Northern Ireland I believe), 6 fully electric single deckers for the Poppleton Park and Ride, another 6 fully electric single deckers parked at Sherburn awaiting delivery for use on other P&R services (most likely Monks Cross), the council is sitting on money to buy 2 electric minibuses for a shuttle to the Derwenthorpe development once it's more complete, and now we have a fully electric double decker bus.... It's something like 11%-15% of the total number of buses based in York are now environmentally friendly.

The electric double decker will have a practical range of 80 miles (the tour route has a daily mileage of just over 70, the maximum range of the bus is close to 90 miles)... to give an idea of scale, if there were charging points at both ends, and if the buses were operated on a "one in, one out" policy, you'd possibly be able to run the Leeds-Scarborough Coastliner route with these electric double deckers.

Now all that's left is to actually see this electric double decker in service... since it's launch it has dissappeared out of York.
[quote][p][bold]HeworthM[/bold] wrote: Are the costs correct - £75k conversion will save £20k per annum, meaning a payback period of less than 4 years? If this is true, I am surprised that the local bus sector across the world isn't funding these conversions themselves but I can't blame Transdev for taking the government grant as it was available.[/p][/quote]This conversion is the world's very first converted electric double decker bus... and so every corner of the bus industry will be watching it to see if it works as desired. The company behind the conversion hope to have 'conversion kits' available by early next year for other buses. This time last year, York has no 'green' buses. Now we have the electric minibus for the university campus, 4 hybrids for the number 4 route (supposed to be 5, but the very first one from the batch has had several mechanical issues and is still over in Northern Ireland I believe), 6 fully electric single deckers for the Poppleton Park and Ride, another 6 fully electric single deckers parked at Sherburn awaiting delivery for use on other P&R services (most likely Monks Cross), the council is sitting on money to buy 2 electric minibuses for a shuttle to the Derwenthorpe development once it's more complete, and now we have a fully electric double decker bus.... It's something like 11%-15% of the total number of buses based in York are now environmentally friendly. The electric double decker will have a practical range of 80 miles (the tour route has a daily mileage of just over 70, the maximum range of the bus is close to 90 miles)... to give an idea of scale, if there were charging points at both ends, and if the buses were operated on a "one in, one out" policy, you'd possibly be able to run the Leeds-Scarborough Coastliner route with these electric double deckers. Now all that's left is to actually see this electric double decker in service... since it's launch it has dissappeared out of York. Magicman!
  • Score: 2

4:37am Sat 6 Sep 14

Magicman! says...

Horse Renoir wrote:
Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!!
Or am I missing something?
At the speed it does and the fact it regularly stops, fuel consumption is more likely to be around 6mpg or possibly less.

Anyway, I also quoted this as I like the posting name....
[quote][p][bold]Horse Renoir[/bold] wrote: Why do we accept these figures without question? 33 tons of CO2 from 1 site seeing bus? The CO2 can only come from burning the diesel so that assumes the bus uses at least 33 tons of fuel per year (assuming that all the diesel is turned into CO2 which I Doubt) 33 tombs of diesel is approx 10500 gallons. I don't know how many miles per gallon a bus does but if you assume 12 then this bus must be doing 126000 miles a year around York !!! Or am I missing something?[/p][/quote]At the speed it does and the fact it regularly stops, fuel consumption is more likely to be around 6mpg or possibly less. Anyway, I also quoted this as I like the posting name.... Magicman!
  • Score: -2

Comments are closed on this article.

Send us your news, pictures and videos

Most read stories

Local Info

Enter your postcode, town or place name

About cookies

We want you to enjoy your visit to our website. That's why we use cookies to enhance your experience. By staying on our website you agree to our use of cookies. Find out more about the cookies we use.

I agree